Technical Security Assessment

What is VA?

The purpose of the Vulnerability Assessment is to evaluate an organization's IT infrastructure for known vulnerabilities and to bring forth the current security posture of the organization's IT assets. This process involves a combination of automated and manual techniques with varying degrees of rigor with an emphasis on providing comprehensive coverage of the security state. Vulnerability assessments target different layers of technology such as network-layer, host-layer, and service-layer. The exercise upon its completion provides prioritized, risk-based step-by-step actions to fix the vulnerabilities identified within the IT systems.

The Benefits of Vulnerability Assessment

Detect security weaknesses before attackers do.
A listing of vulnerabilities for each device and application.
Preparation for future upgrades.
Established security baseline for later assessments.
Evaluation of technical risk for your Infrastructure and application.
Early identification saves the future cost of recovery and time.
Misconfiguration identification.

Vulnerability Assessment Types

Authenticated Vulnerability Assessment - Authenticated VA determines how secure the asset is from an inside vantage point. This method is used to identify what needs to be done to reduce the risk after an attacker gains access to the network or a user account. Insider threats are also identified during this testing.
Unauthenticated Vulnerability Assessment - Unauthenticated VA assesses the security of an asset from an outside perspective. This analysis identifies what a malicious attacker could access without acquiring inside access to the asset.

How we do it

Information Gathering - In this phase, the target is identified with various scanning techniques, and running services are discovered and tested for their version and type.
Threat Modeling - Once relevant information is gathered, the next step is to identify the endpoints along with their business impact after compromise. This helps in developing a plan of action for the penetration testing process where we rank the endpoints in the order of perceived value.
Vulnerability Analysis - Each endpoint will be tested for known vulnerabilities via automated tools and later verified by manual analysis. The extent of vulnerability is then assessed, including the level of weakness and the sensitivity of the information it might expose.
Reporting - Once the testing is complete, Neural IT delivers a detailed analysis and threat report, including an executive summary, identified vulnerabilities, and risk rating along with detailed remediation steps.

Neural IT: Vulnerability Assessment Deliverables

A detailed Vulnerability Assessment Report with:

Assessment of the security measures currently in place compared with industry practices
Identification of vulnerabilities on the systems and processes that pose a security risk before attackers identify them.
All the vulnerabilities identified will be rated from low to critical on the basis of their likelihood and their impacts


We focus equally on manual testing to ensure issues that are overlooked by Automated scanning are identified.
The remediation suggested by us is tailored specifically for the client's assets.
To help clients protect themselves from future vulnerabilities, we provide strategic recommendations to resolve such issues on a policy level.

Penetration Testing

Penetration testing is a type of security testing where the digital assets of the organization are exploited to understand the impact of the vulnerabilities found on them which the attackers can take advantage of. A penetration test takes the perspective of an outside intruder or an internal individual with malicious intent, this way the organization can better understand the risk to their IT environment.

The methodology for penetration testing utilizes vulnerability assessment as well and with few extra steps which involve exploiting the target, to prevent your organization from possible breaches and reinforce existing security controls against a skilled attacker, we offer penetration testing services based on a custom plan of a multistep attack that targets custom network infrastructure and applications.

Web Application Penetration Testing - Web Application Penetration Testing is done by simulating real world attacks on a web application to get access to sensitive data. Penetration test on a web application helps the organization to find out the possibility of a breach and better understand the vulnerability risk in terms of business and technical impact.

Mobile Application Penetration Testing - Mobile application penetration testing is the cumulative assessment of mobile application (Android and iOS) for all known vulnerabilities. We manually test for security controls in four essential areas: file system, memory and network communications. Our methodologies consist of Open-Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM), the Penetration Testing Execution Standard (PTES) and Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Mobile Top 10.

Infrastructure Penetration Testing - Infrastructure penetration testing is the cumulative security assessment of workstations, servers and the network of the organization. We simulate real-world attacks to provide a point-in-time assessment of vulnerabilities and threats to the IT infrastructure using Open-Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM) as our test baseline.

Benefits of Penetration Testing

The ability to prevent incidents that could adversely affect the company's image and customer safety
Reducing the risks of information leakage and unauthorized access
Detection of all critical threats to digital assets of the organization

Types of Penetration Tests

Black Box Testing

This is done to test as a third party attacker. Black box testing doesn’t require any knowledge of the internal path, working or structure of the asset being tested.

Grey Box Testing

In this type of testing limited knowledge of the internal working of the system is provided to test as a user with access to the internals

White Box Testing

White Box testing provides a comprehensive of both internal and external vulnerabilities and focuses more on the process of the application.

Process of Penetration Testing

The penetration testing process picks up from where Vulnerability Assessment left off. Thus, the first three phases remain the same and the next phases exploit the vulnerability.

Process of Penetration Testing
Exploitation & Post Exploitation - After the vulnerabilities are identified the only thing left is to attack them. The vulnerabilities now will be exploited just as in a real-world attack. After successful exploitation, based on the type of access provided and the type of information disclosed the risk will be re-evaluated.
Reporting - Once the testing is complete, Neural IT delivers a detailed analysis and threat report, including an executive summary, identified vulnerabilities, and risk rating along with detailed remediation steps.

Process of Wireless Penetration Testing

The process for application and infrastructure penetration testing remains similar. But when it comes to Wireless Penetration Testing the methodology changes a bit

Process of Penetration Testing
Wireless Recon - This is the very first phase in the entire Wireless Penetration Testing Process where Information about the target wireless network is gathered like BSSIDs, SSIDs, Encryption security is analyzed. Based on the information gathered vulnerabilities are assessed
Wi-Fi Unauthorized Access - In this phase, the Wi-Fi security will be tested for unauthorized access, the strength of the security encryption used on the network will also be tested.
Network Enumeration - Once the attacker gains unauthorized access to the network, he will gather more information about the network, its topology, and how the machines interact with each other.
Exploitation & Data Capture - In this phase the network will be tested for man-in-the-middle attacks and the data flowing in the network will be captured to test if sensitive data is flowing without any protection and what the attacker can do with it.
Reporting - After the testing, a detailed report will be generated which will comprise all the vulnerabilities found during the testing with their remediation.

Network Security Architecture Review

The network infrastructure of the organization develops over many years. While this development is a direct response to the changing needs of the business, security has improved in many respects, our network security architecture review is conducted by systematic examination of all layers of an organization's network. We will examine the existing network topology and deployment of security controls within the organization such as firewalls, IDS/IPS, network partitions, and make recommendations to increase the effectiveness of security controls.

Our systematic approach is to the evaluation of the current security structure which ensures a detailed review of the current architecture, technology, and security policy of the organization, management practices, and planned changes. We identify network and design weaknesses in security, performance, scalability. After the review suggestions to improve the security architecture will be submitted along with business objectives, your organization's security policy,
and industry best practices.

Benefits of Network Security Architecture Review

Provides a detailed analysis of currently deployed application, system and the entire IT infrastructure
Helps in identifying weaknesses and provides recommendations to reduce the attack surface
Enables the organization to scale with a strong secure IT infrastructure

Network Security Architecture Review Deliverables

Review the latest threat risk analysis report.
Analysis of current IT networks, information flow according to business needs and points of access to information.
Analysis of current security controls and procedures for various security management areas.
Analyze existing network security architecture including topology & configuration, and security components.

Security Assessment Process

Security Assessment Process
Information Gathering - This is the very first phase of the entire VAPT process in which the target is identified and is enumerated for the technologies, services, plugins, and operating system in place
Threat Modelling - In this phase, the target is enumerated for all the security safeguards in place. And if these safeguards are not found then the threat is analyzed to the integrity of the security structure
Vulnerability Assessment - In the VA phase, the vulnerabilities are assessed based on the information which was gathered in the first phase. Each service and feature will be checked against the latest security standards to generate a list of potential vulnerabilities
Penetration Testing - In the PT phase, all the vulnerabilities discovered in the VA phase will be exploited as an attacker to fully understand the level of the breach and the threat a particular vulnerability might pose
Post Exploitation - Post Exploitation takes the unauthorized access an attacker has and elevates that access. Understanding how network resources interact with each other and how an attacker might pivot from one compromised machine to the next add in getting a clear picture of the security of the entire IT infrastructure
Reporting - This is the last step of the entire VAPT process, in which a detailed report will be generated based on the findings during all the previous phases. This report comprises of the level of vulnerability and how to patch it so that the asset cannot be exploited.

Vulnerability Risk Definition and Criteria

The risk ratings assigned to each vulnerability are determined by averaging several aspects of the exploit and the targeted asset, including the difficulty, and criticality of the vulnerability.
Critical - Critical risk vulnerabilities will have a crippling effect. Vulnerabilities of this level usually result in complete compromise of the affected host along with the possible environment it resides on. In most instances, the exploit is already available publicly and requires little to no tweaking while exploiting.
High - High risk vulnerabilities will be able to access potential sensitive information or bypass restrictions to gain unauthorized access. The severity is reduced based on the type of information leaked or the type of access gained.
Medium - Medium risk vulnerabilities will most often require further determination and technical ability to create a noticeable effect on an organization’s business. This includes Denial of Service attacks which can be difficult to set up, or vulnerabilities that need further chaining to social engineering or access to backend infrastructure to have a bigger impact.
Low - Low risk vulnerabilities have very little impact on an organization’s business. Exploitation of such vulnerabilities would either require local privileged access or to be used in combination to other findings.
Informational - Informational vulnerabilities don't really pose a huge threat to the assets in scope. They are included however, as they can be used to chain with other vulnerabilities to further exploit the targeted asset.

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