Lexapro (Escitalopram) was introduced and marketed by U.S-based Forest Laboratories Inc., in partnership with the Danish drug company Lundbeck. The drug was approved by the FDA on November 27, 2002, in a solution form and on August 14, 2012, in a tablet form. The drug is used for treating adults and children above 12 years of age with the major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. It is available in tablets and oral forms. Lexapro is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) administered orally.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are typically used in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders that work by altering the levels of a mood-enhancing chemical called serotonin. The first SSRI introduced in the market was fluoxetine in 1985.
SSRI is indicated in the treatment of major depression, anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, social phobia, bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorder, premenstrual disorder, and posttraumatic panic disorders. Off-label use of SSRI is a migraine, diabetic neuropathy, neurocardiogenic syncope, and fibromyalgia.
The main indicator of SSRIs is a major depressive disorder; however, they are often assigned to anxiety disorders, such as social anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), eating disorders, chronic pain, and, in some cases, due to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They are also used to treat a person's dysfunction, although there are various side effects.
Anti-depressants are recommended by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as a first-line treatment for major depression and treatment for mild to moderate depression that goes on after a series of steps such as psychotherapy. They recommend its regular use for those with chronic health problems and mild depression. There has been controversy over the effectiveness of SSRIs in the treatment of depression in terms of its severity and duration.
In 2004, the FDA added a black box warning labels for SSRIs. The warning points to an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children and adolescents. However, other studies have suggested that the benefits of antidepressant drugs may outweigh the risks of suicidal thoughts.
A 2017 systematic review states that "placebo-compared SSRIs appear to have significant effects in terms of depressive symptoms, but the clinical significance of these results appears questionable and all trials were at high risk of bias. In addition, placebo-compared SSRIs significantly increased the risk of both. serious and adverse events. Our results show that the adverse effects of SSRIs compared to placebo for major depressive disorder appear to outweigh any positive outcomes. " Fredrik Hieronymus et al. have criticized the review as inaccurate and misleading, but they have also exposed many links in the pharmaceutical industry.
In 2018, systematic reviews and meta-analyses comparing the effectiveness and acceptance of the 21 anti-depressant drugs have shown escitalopram to be one of the most effective. In children, there is concern about the quality of evidence with an understanding of the perceived benefits. When a drug is used, fluoxetine appears to be the first line.
Some SSRIs are effective in disrupting social anxiety, although their effects on companies are not always strong and their use is sometimes banned due to psychotherapy. Paroxetine was the first drug to be approved for social anxiety disorders and is considered an effective treatment for the disease, sertraline, and fluvoxamine were later approved, and, escitalopram and citalopram are used off-label for legal use, while fluoxetine may be considered effective in this condition.
In Canada, SSRIs are a form of first-line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the UK, they are only first-line treatment with moderate to severe disability and as a second-line treatment for those with minor disabilities, however, from the beginning of 2019, this recommendation is reviewed. In children, SSRIs can be considered a second-line treatment for those with moderate to severe disabilities, with close monitoring of adverse psychological effects. SSRIs, especially fluvoxamine, which is the first FDA approved for OCD, are effective in its treatment; Patients treated with SSRIs are about twice as likely to respond to treatment as those treated with placebo. Efficacy has been shown for short-term treatment trials for 6 to 24 weeks and for a period of 28 to 52-week duration trials.
Physicians and mothers-to-be should compare the risks of SSRI treatment with the risks of untreated depression. Depression without treatment can also harm the pregnancy. For example, depressed women may not want the prenatal care they need.
Some pregnant women may change their SSRI to reduce the risk while treating their depression. For example, Paroxetine (Paxil) has been linked to congenital heart disease and respiratory distress, and brain disorders in the newborn. Female doctors taking paroxetine may recommend switching to fluoxetine (Prozac) or citalopram (Celexa) during pregnancy. These SSRIs have been linked to very serious side effects.
SSRIs are not for everyone. It is rarely recommended if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or under the age of 18 because there is an increased risk of serious side effects. However, the opposite can be done if the benefits of treatment are considered to outweigh the risks. SSRIs should also be used with caution if you have any health problems, including diabetes, epilepsy, and kidney disease.
Some SSRIs may respond unexpectedly to other medications, including other over-the-counter pain medications and medications, such as St John's wort. Always read the information sheet that comes with your SSRI medication to see if there are any medications you need to avoid.
As for the anti-depressant drugs, which one is best for you will depend on several issues, your symptoms, and any other health problems you may have. Asking the doctors and pharmacists about the most common potential side effects, especially for those of SSRIs, and read patient management guide-to-follow recipes.
SSRIs are generally safe for most people. However, in some cases, it can cause problems for them. For example, a high dose of this medication can result in dangerous abnormal heart rhythms, it is necessary to prevent a denial of the more than 40 years of age, in which (mg) per day, according to the FDA and the manufacturer. It comes with a maximum daily dose of citalopram is 20 mg for people over the age of 60.
Anyone taking antidepressants should be closely monitored for exacerbation, depression, or unusual behavior. If you or someone you know is having thoughts about suicide while taking antidepressant medication, consult your doctor or the emergency contacts immediately.
Remember that anti-depressants are more likely to reduce the risk of suicide in the long run, it started in the mood.
Lexapro works by restoring the chemical balance in the brain by increasing the serotonin levels in the brain. It blocks the reabsorption or reuptake of neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. The drug was initially approved by the FDA for treating only adults, but later it was approved to treat depression in adolescents aged 12 and above.
It was aggressively marketed and became the most popular antidepressant in the USA. Recent studies linked the drug with serious birth defects, such as autism, spina bifida, neural defects, etc. in newborn babies. Many lawsuits were filed against Lexapro. The drug's patent expired in 2012 and the first generic version of Lexapro was approved in the market in March 2012 by the FDA.
Cipralex is the other brand name containing Escitalopram manufactured by Lundbeck.